Nutlet image of Adelinia Nutlet image of Amsinckia Nutlet image of Amsinckiopsis Nutlet image of Andersonglossum Nutlet image of Cryptantha Nutlet image of Dasynotus Nutlet image of Eremocarya Nutlet image of Greeneocharis Nutlet image of Gruvelia Nutlet image of Harpagonella Nutlet image of Johnstonella Nutlet image of Oncaglossum Nutlet image of Oreocarya Nutlet image of Pectocarya Nutlet image of Plagiobothrys Nutlet image of Simpsonanthus Nutlet image of Sonnea
Adelinia Amsinckia Amsinckiopsis Andersonglossum Cryptantha Dasynotus Eremocarya Greeneocharis Gruvelia Harpagonella Johnstonella Oncaglossum Oreocarya Pectocarya Plagiobothrys Simpsonanthus Sonnea

Systematics of Amsinckiinae (Boraginaceae): The Popcorn Flowers

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Oreocarya Greene

Pittonia 1: 57 (1889)

Gr. oros or oreos, mountain, + karyon, a nut, in reference to the montane, often high elevation habitats of members of the genus

Cryptantha Lehmann ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4(1): 373 (1837)
Cynoglossum L., Sp. Pl.: 134 (1753)
Eritrichium Schrad. ex Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 2: 57 (1828)
Brand, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 24: 59 (1927)
Fischer & C.A.Meyer, Index Seminum (LE, Petropolitanus) 7: 52 (1841)
L., Sp. Pl.: 131 (1753)
Rchb., Flora 7: 243 (1824)
Type Species/EspeciesTipo:

Oreocarya glomerata (Pursh) Greene, Pittonia 1: 58 (1887)
      J. Bradbury s.n., USA: Upper Louisiana (PH00008533). Basionym: Cynoglossum glomeratum Nuttall ex Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 729. 1814
      Designated the type of Cryptantha, subgenus Oreocarya by Higgins 1971, in that work treated as Cryptantha celosioides (Eastwood) Payson,
      as Cryptantha glomerata Lehmann ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4(1): 373 (1837), the type of the genus Cryptantha, was already in use.

Distribution of Oreocarya:
LEFT: POWO. 2019. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet. http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org.Green=native. Accessed 29 Dec 2019.
RIGHT: GBIF. 2019. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org. Accessed 29 Dec 2019.

Treatment by Macbride 1916

Treatment by Payson 1927

Treatment by Higgins 1971

Jepson eFlora Treatment (California Species)

species and 73 minimally ranked taxa
All species are present in USA; =Canada also; ††=Mexico also; (CA)=California
Cryptantha synonyms in brackets; red=synonyms with different epithet]
Oreocarya abortiva Greene   (CA) [Cryptantha abortiva (Eastwood) Payson]
Oreocarya aperta Eastwood  Extinct [Cryptantha aperta (Eastwood) Payson]
Oreocarya atwoodii (L.C.Higgins) Hasenstab & M.G.Simpson [Cryptantha atwoodii L.C.Higgins]
Oreocarya bakeri Greene [Cryptantha bakeri (Greene) Payson]
Oreocarya barnebyi (I.M.Johnston) Hasenstab & M.G.Simpson [Cryptantha barnebyi I.M.Johnston]
Oreocarya breviflora Osterhout [Cryptantha breviflora (Osterh.) Payson]
Oreocarya caespitosa A.Nelson [Cryptantha caespitosa (A.Nelson) Payson]
Oreocarya cana A.Nelson [Cryptantha cana (A.Nelson) Payson]
Oreocarya capitata Eastwood [Cryptantha capitata (Eastwood) I.M.Johnston]
Oreocarya compacta (L.C.Higgins) R.B.Kelley [Cryptantha compacta L.C.Higgins]
Oreocarya confertiflora Greene   (CA) [Cryptantha confertiflora (Greene) Payson]
Oreocarya crassipes (I.M.Johnston) Hasenstab & M.G.Simpson [Cryptantha crassipes I.M.Johnston]
Oreocarya creutzfeldtii (S.L.Welsh) R.B.Kelley [Cryptantha creutzfeldtii S. L. Welsh]
Oreocarya crymophila (I.M.Johnston) Jepson & Hoover   (CA) [Cryptantha crymophila I.M.Johnston]
Oreocarya depressa (M.E. Jones) J.F.Macbride [Cryptantha abata I.M.Johnston]
Oreocarya elata Eastwood [Cryptantha elata (Eastwood) Payson]
Oreocarya flava A.Nelson [Cryptantha flava (A.Nelson) Payson]
Oreocarya flavoculata A.Nelson   (CA) [Cryptantha flavoculata (A.Nelson) Payson]
Oreocarya fulvocanescens (S. Watson) Greene [Cryptantha fulvocanescens (S.Watson) Payson]
     var. fulvocanescens      [C. f. var. fulvocanescens]
     var. nitida (Greene) R.B.Kelley      [C. f. var. nitida (Greene) R.C. Sivinski]
Oreocarya glomerata (Pursh) Greene   (CA) [Cryptantha celosioides (Eastwood) Payson]
Oreocarya grahamii (I.M.Johnston) R.B.Kelley [Cryptantha grahamii I.M.Johnston]
Oreocarya hoffmannii (I.M.Johnston) Abrams   (CA) [Cryptantha hoffmannii I.M.Johnston]
Oreocarya humilis (A.Gray) Greene [Cryptantha humilis (A.Gray) Payson]
     subsp. humilis   (CA)      [C. humilis var. humilis]
     subsp. nana (Eastwood) W.A.Weber      [C. humilis var. nana (Eastwood) L.C.Higgins]
Oreocarya hypsophila (I.M.Johnston) Hasenstab & M.G.Simpson [Cryptantha hypsophila I.M.Johnston]
Oreocarya insolita J.F.Macbride   Extinct [Cryptantha insolita (J.F.Macbride) Payson]
Oreocarya interrupta Greene [Cryptantha interrupta (Greene) Payson]
Oreocarya johnstonii (L.C.Higgins) Hasenstab & M.G.Simpson [Cryptantha johnstonii L.C.Higgins]
Oreocarya jonesiana Payso [Cryptantha jonesiana (Payson) Payson]
Oreocarya leucophaea (Douglas) Greene [Cryptantha leucophaea (Douglas) Payson]
Oreocarya longiflora A.Nelson [Cryptantha longiflora (A.Nelson) Payson]
Oreocarya mensana (M. E. Jones) Payson [Cryptantha mensana (M.E. Jones) Payson]
Oreocarya nubigena Greene   (CA) [Cryptantha nubigena (Greene) Payson]
Oreocarya oblata (M. E. Jones) J.F.Macbride [Cryptantha oblata (M.E. Jones) Payson]
Oreocarya ochroleuca (L.C.Higgins) R.B.Kelley [Cryptantha ochroleuca L.C.Higgins]
Oreocarya osterhoutii Payson [Cryptantha osterhoutii (Payson) Payson]
Oreocarya palmeri (A.Gray) Greene †† [Cryptantha palmeri (A.Gray) Payson]
Oreocarya paradoxa A.Nelson [Cryptantha paradoxa (A.Nelson) Payson]
Oreocarya paysonii J.F.Macbride [Cryptantha paysonii (J.F.Macbride) I.M.Johnston]
Oreocarya propria A.Nelson & J.F.Macbride [Cryptantha propria (A.Nelson & J.F.Macbride) Payson]
Oreocarya revealii W.A.Weber & R. C. Wittmann [Cryptantha gypsophila Reveal & C.R. Broome]
Oreocarya rollinsii (I.M.Johnston) W.A.Weber [Cryptantha rollinsii I.M.Johnston]
Oreocarya roosiorum (Munz) R.B.Kelley, Hasenstab, & M.G.Simpson  1B.2   (CA) [Cryptantha roosiorum Munz]
Oreocarya rugulosa Payson [Cryptantha rugulosa (Payson) Payson]
Oreocarya salmonensis A.Nelson & J.F.Macbride [Cryptantha salmonensis (A.Nelson & J.F.Macbride) Payson]
Oreocarya schoolcraftii (Tiehm) R.B.Kelley  2B.2   (CA) [Cryptantha schoolcraftii Tiehm]
Oreocarya semiglabra (Barneby) Hasenstab & M.G.Simpson [Cryptantha semiglabra Barneby]
Oreocarya sericea (A.Gray) Greene [Cryptantha sericea (A.Gray) Payson]
Oreocarya setosissima (A.Gray) Greene [Cryptantha setosissima (A.Gray) Payson]
Oreocarya shackletteana (L.C.Higgins) R.B.Kelley [Cryptantha shackletteana L.C.Higgins]
Oreocarya sobolifera (Payson) R.B.Kelley   WI/IN   (CA) [Cryptantha sobolifera Payson]
Oreocarya spiculifera Piper [Cryptantha spiculifera (Piper) Payson]
Oreocarya stricta Osterhout [Cryptantha stricta (Osterh.) Payson]
Oreocarya subcapitata (Dorn & Lichvar) R.B.Kelley [Cryptantha subcapitata Dorn & Lichvar]
Oreocarya subretusa (I.M.Johnston) Abrams   (CA) [Cryptantha subretusa I.M.Johnston]
Oreocarya suffruticosa (Torrey) Greene †† [Cryptantha cinerea (Greene) Cronquist]
   var. arenicola (L.C.Higgins & S.L.Welsh) R.B.Kelley      [C. c. var. arenicola L.C.Higgins & S. L. Welsh]
   var. cinerea (Greene) Payson      [C. c. var. cinerea (Greene) Cronquist]
   var. laxa (J.F.Macbride) R.B.Kelley      [C. c. var. laxa (MacBride) L.C.Higgins]
   var. multicaulis (Torrey) Payson      [C. jamesii Payson var. multicaulis (Torr.) Payson]
   var. pustulosa (Rydberg) R.B.Kelley      [C. c. var. pustulosa (Rydberg) L.C.Higgins]
   var. setosa (M. E. Jones) R.B.Kelley      [C. jamesii Payson var. setosa (M.E. Jones) Shinners]
   var. suffruticosa      [C. c. var. cinerea]
Oreocarya tenuis Eastwood [Cryptantha tenuis (Eastwood) Payson]
Oreocarya thompsonii (I.M.Johnston) Abrams [Cryptantha thompsonii I.M.Johnston]
Oreocarya thyrsiflora Greene [Cryptantha thrysiflora (Greene) Payson]
Oreocarya tumulosa Payson   (CA) [Cryptantha tumulosa (Payson) Payson]
Oreocarya virgata (Porter) Greene [Cryptantha virgata (Porter) Payson]
Oreocarya virginensis (M. E. Jones) J.F.Macbride   (CA) [Cryptantha virginensis (M.E. Jones) Payson]
Oreocarya weberi (I.M.Johnston) W.A.Weber [Cryptantha weberi I.M.Johnston]
Oreocarya welshii (K.H.Thorne & L.C.Higgins) R.B.Kelley [Cryptantha welshii K.H.Thorne & L.C.Higgins]
Oreocarya wetherillii Eastwood [Cryptantha wetherillii (Eastwood) Payson]
Oreocarya worthingtonii Sivinski
California Native Plant Society (CNPS) Inventory Listings:
1A = Plants presumed extirpated in California and either rare or extinct elsewhere
1B = Plants rare, threatened, or endangered in California and elsewhere
2A = Plants presumed extirpated in California but common elsewhere
2B = Plants rare, threatened, or endangered in California but common elsewhere
3 = Plants about which more information is needed, a review list
4 = Plants of limited distribution, a watch list
.1 = Seriously threatened in California — Over 80% of occurrences threatened / high degree and immediacy of threat
.2 = Moderately threatened in California — 20-80% of occurrences threatened / moderate degree and immediacy of threat
.3 = Not very threatened in California — Less than 20% of occurrences threatened / low degree and immediacy of threat or no current threats known

Plant Taxa with High Affinity to Ultramafic Substrates in California (after Safford et al. 2005):
BE/SI = Broad Endemic/Strong Indicator
SE = Strong Endemic
SI = Strong Indicator
WI = Weak Indicator
WI/IN = Weak Indicator/Indifferent

Oreocarya coryi (I.M.Johnston) comb. nov., in progress
Oreocarya flumenavia sp. nov., in progress
Oreocarya higginsii sp. nov., in progress
Oreocarya howelliana sp. nov., in progress
Oreocarya montana sp. nov., in progress
Oreocarya ursina sp. nov., in progress





Casper, B. B. and D. Wiens. 1981. Fixed rates of random ovule abortion in Cryptantha flava (Boraginaceae) and its possible relation to seed dispersal. Ecology 62:866-689.
Casper, B. B. 1983. The efficiency of pollen transfer and rates of embryo initiation in Cryptantha (Boraginaceae). Oecologia 59:262-268.
Casper, B. B. 1985. Self-incompatibility in distylous Cryptantha flava (Boraginaceae). New Phytologist 99:149-154.
Casper, B. B. 1988. Evidence for selective embryo abortion in Cryptantha flava. The American Naturalist 132:318-326.
Casper, B. B. 1994. Postdispersal sibling competition and the evolution of single-seededness in Cryptantha flava. Evolution 48:1377-1382.
Casper, B. B., I. N. Forseth, and D. A. Wait. 2006. A stage-based study of drought response in Cryptantha flava (Boraginaceae): Gas exchange, water use efficiency,
      and whole plant performance. American Journal of Botany 93:978-987.
Greene, E. L. 1889. Some west American Asperifoliae II. Pittonia 1:55-60.
Macbride, J. F. 1916. II. Revision of the genus Oreocarya. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 48:20-38.
Marushak, T. M. 2003a. Patterns of mating system evolution in Cryptantha section Oreocarya (Boraginaceae) - A phylogenetic approach. PhD Dissertation. University of Marlyand, College Park.
Marushak, T. M. 2003b. Patterns of mating system evolution in Cryptantha section Oreocarya (Boraginaceae) - A phylogenetic approach. PhD Dissertation. University of Marlyand, College Park.
Payson, E. B. 1927. A monograph of the section Oreocarya of Cryptantha. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 14:211-358.
Peek, M. S. and I. N. Forseth. 2003. Microhabitat dependent responses to resource pulses in the aridland perennial, Cryptantha flava. Journal of Ecology 91:457-466.
Higgins, L. C. 1971. A revision of Cryptantha subgenus Oreocarya. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin Biological Series 8:1-62.

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